Healthy Byte: Protein, the Fountain of Youth

Originally Posted HERE

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(Reuters Health) – Older adults who cut back on the amount of vegetable protein in their diets may be more likely to experience age-related health problems than their peers who increase the amount of plant protein they eat, a Spanish study suggests.

Researchers examined data on 1,951 people aged 60 and older who completed dietary surveys and questionnaires to detect four types of unhealthy aging: functional impairments; reduced vitality; mental health issues; and chronic medical problems or use of health services. Participants provided this information in three waves: from 2008-2010, in 2012 and again in 2017.

Overall, study participants got an average 12% of their calories from animal protein, including meat and dairy, and about 6% from vegetable protein, including sources such as legumes, nuts, grains, root vegetables and green plants.

Compared to people who decreased vegetable protein intake by more than 2% between the first wave and 2012, those who increased their consumption of vegetable protein by more than 2% developed fewer deficits associated with unhealthy aging during the study.

“There is growing evidence supporting a beneficial effect of higher intakes of total protein on muscle mass and strength, physical functioning, hip fracture and frailty,” said Esther Lopez-Garcia, senior author of the study and a researcher at Universidad Autonoma de Madrid.

The study offers fresh evidence that the type of protein matters, too.

“If you eat more plant-based sources of proteins, you are also getting a lot of micronutrients and healthy fats, and fiber that help improve your health,” Lopez-Garcia said by email. “On the other hand, if you consume animal sources of proteins full of saturated and trans fats, and other substances added during the processing (mostly salt and nitrites), you are getting all the detrimental effects of these substances.”

At the start of the study, people got about 5.2% of their calories from meat, 3.3% from dairy, 3% from refined grains and 2.8% from fish. Participants got less than 1% of their calories from legumes, eggs, fruit, vegetables, whole grains, tubers or nuts.

Changes in animal protein consumption during the study didn’t appear to influence the potential for people to show more signs of unhealthy aging by the end of the study, researchers report in the American Journal of Medicine.

But adding more vegetable protein was linked to fewer deficits by the end of the study.

“Since substitution of plant protein for animal protein has been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, it is relevant to understand which source of protein may be more beneficial for a healthy aging,” Lopez-Garcia said.

The study wasn’t designed to prove whether or how eating more plant proteins may stall unhealthy aging. It also wasn’t able to determine which types of vegetable proteins might be best from an aging perspective.

One limitation of the study is that many participants dropped out before the end. It’s also possible that results from this study of older adults might not apply to younger people.

“While high protein intake might not be preferable for middle-aged adults, it has been shown that high level of protein intake is protective among those aged 66 years and older,” said Yian Gu, a neurology researcher at Columbia University in New York City who wasn’t involved in the study.

“It is important to interpret scientific findings on protein intake based on age groups, ” Gu said by email. “The current study results are consistent with findings in the elderlies, with further information from innovative analyses of animal and plant based proteins separately.”

The sources of protein also matter, Lopez-Garcia said.

Good sources of plant-based protein include lentils, beans, peas, soybeans, nuts, seeds, and whole grains like teff, wheat, quinoa, rice, oats, and buckwheat, Lopez Garcia advised.

Healthy options for animal protein can include poultry, seafood, eggs, as well as dairy in moderation, Lopez-Garcia advised. Protein sources to reduce or limit include red and processed meat.

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Healthy Byte: Aerobic vs. Anaerobic

Originally Posted HERE

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Think about how you feel on the treadmill versus during a high-intensity interval workout: Your probably feel like you could maintain that steady state for a pretty solid amount of time without wheezing, while just one round of HIIT leaves you gasping for breath.

That difference is important to understand, because it’s how you can tell aerobic vs. anaerobic workouts apart. Your body creates energy in two basic ways: anaerobically (without oxygen) and aerobically (with oxygen), and each of those methods will affect your body differently. Understanding that process can help you burn calories and fat—plus increase your overall strength, power, and endurance.

What’s An Anaerobic Workout?

Any activity performed at a high enough intensity that your body can’t provide the necessary energy to complete it with oxygen intake alone is considered anaerobic. “Anaerobic workouts primarily utilize fast twitch muscle fibers that can function only for a short amount of time without the help of additional inhaled oxygen,” explains Lesley Bell, a NASM-certified personal trainer and brain health coach at Pacific Neuroscience Institute at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, Cali.

[pullquote align=’left’]”Anaerobic workouts primarily utilize fast-twitch muscle fibers.”[/pullquote]

Without oxygen, the body uses adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glucose in the muscle cells for energy. But that process can’t be sustained more than 90 to 120 seconds of high-intensity exercise because your muscles have produced a significant amount of lactic acid in that time; after that, “your body must begin to utilize inhaled oxygen in order to break down glucose and fatty acids” to continue to produce energy, says Bell, and that’s when your aerobic energy system takes over (more on that in a minute).

Here’s an advanced HIIT workout from Kelsey Wells that’ll get your heart pumping:

“Anaerobic is done at a high intensity and usually using multiple intervals,” says Andy Coggan, the director of fitness at Gold’s Gym. If you’ve ever done a HIIT workout, that’s anaerobic exercise. Plyometrics, sprinting, and weight lifting are all considered anaerobic—you’re going all out with 100-percent effort, but you can only sustain that effort for a short period of time. “Most sports involve anaerobic bursts followed by periods of rest,” too, he adds.

Photo credit: Cavan Images - Getty Images

Photo credit: Cavan Images – Getty Images

What’s An Aerobic Workout?

If the word “aerobics” makes you think of women dancing in Spandex, you’re on the right track—those low-intensity classes are designed to keep your heart rate up for an extended period of time.

“Aerobic exercise is anything where oxygen intake is sufficient enough to provide the energy necessary to sustain that exercise without tapping into alternative energy sources,” says Coggan. These workouts primarily utilize slow twitch muscle fibers and the glucose and fatty acids the anaerobic system has already produced for fuel, which can sustain activity for extended periods of time, adds Bell.

Any lower- to moderate-intensity exercise is considered aerobic. Think about steady-state exercise like walking, running, cycling, or even dancing. You’re not going to be gasping for breath during these workouts, because your body is continuously consuming enough oxygen for you to power through.

Why Are Aerobic and Anaerobic Workouts Important?

Obviously, these styles of training are pretty different. And they’re both equally important in a well-rounded fitness regimen.

Aerobic exercise triggers fat burning, because you still have oxygen in your muscle tissue. It also “improves the cardiovascular system by strengthening the heart and potentially increasing the maximal amount of oxygen the body can utilize (AKA your VO2 max),” says Bell, which can improve your endurance.

On the other hand, anaerobic exercise—like HIIT—has been shown to burn more total calories in a shorter amount of time. “Science shows that this method of training can be extremely beneficial for power development, building muscle mass, and fat burning,” says Coggan. You’ll also build stronger joints and bones due to the increased impact on your body.

To picture how these training methods affect your body, think about the bodies of elite athletes: A typical cross-country runner or marathoner follows a highly aerobic training program, whereas a CrossFitter is someone who prioritizes an anaerobic program.

But you can’t just do cardio or just do weights if you want to get fitter or stronger—even if you have a specific goal in one of those areas.

“Both styles of training will burn calories and improve the function of the heart and lungs, and the best bet for maximum adaptation and body transformation is to combine these training styles over the course of a week,” says Coggan.

“In doing so, you’re getting the power- and muscle-building benefits of anaerobic work while adding the increased stamina and endurance associated with aerobic workouts.”

Here’s How Often You Should Be Doing Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercises Per Week

As Coggan said, you want to make time for both anaerobic and aerobic workouts throughout your week. The most important thing to remember is that there’s an inverse relationship between intensity and duration, says Bell. That means you want to do less of the higher intensity workouts (anaerobic) and more of the low- to moderate-intensity workouts (aerobic).

“Research has shown that a maximum of three to four days of high-intensity exercise with proper rest periods in between is optimal to see results,” says Bell.

“Anything more may yield the same or similar health benefits, but can put you at risk for overtraining or overuse injuries.”

Aerobic exercise, though, could theoretically be done as many as seven days a week. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends adults have at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity cardio per week. “You could split that up anywhere between two to five days, as long as you’re keeping your heart rate around 60 to 75 percent of your maximum,” says Bell. (If you’re going to increase the intensity of the cardio, you’ll want to decrease the duration of it.)

The average person should start with one to two aerobic sessions with one anaerobic session per week, says Coggan. “Over time, you can work up to three to four aerobic sessions intermixed with two higher intensity anaerobic workouts spaced a few days apart from each other,” he says.

Healthy Byte: Exercising for Urological Health

Originally Posted HERE

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When we read, watch or listen to reports of the benefits of exercise, they’re most frequently in relationship to heart health or weight loss. Of course, most people know that exercise provides some great overall health benefits, too, but that notion is more abstract. The less we know about how exercise helps the body, the less likely we might be to engage in it. Well, if you’re among the millions of people currently affected by a urological condition, I’ve got great news. Regular, consistent physical activity just might help reduce the symptoms of certain urological health issues, including urinary incontinence and erectile problems.

Exercising for Bladder Health

For people experiencing bladder health issues like urinary incontinence or bladder leakage, or for those who simply want to keep their bladder healthy, regular exercise is a great way to accomplish this goal. I know this may sound surprising, especially because many people who have bladder issues experience the symptoms of urinary leakage while they’re exercising. However, the key here is to engage in the right types of exercise to both reduce the experience of symptoms and, in some cases, significantly improve the bladder condition itself. In this case, low-impact exercises are best.

Types of low-impact exercise include cycling, yoga and swimming. The goals of exercising for bladder health are to strengthen the abdominal core muscles, elongate the spine and to lift and strengthen the chest. When these goals are accomplished, the result can be a significant reduction in pressure on the bladder and its surrounding muscles, which in turn can help relieve urinary incontinence symptoms. On the other hand, to avoid making bladder symptoms worse, skip exercises that place a significant amount of pressure on the pelvic region. These may include jumping jacks or heavy weight-lifting.

Exercising for Sexual Health

The benefits of aerobic exercise on erectile issues are another area of research interest for urological health professionals and one I believe a number of men can greatly benefit from in terms of improving their sexual health. Most often, when men are facing erectile issues, they’re encouraged to perform specific exercises that target the muscles in the pelvic region. These types of exercise are absolutely important, but research has also shown that “total body” aerobic workouts can have a positive impact on erectile function. Because a significant number of men with erectile dysfunction have developed the condition secondarily due to blood flow issues related to cardiac disease, obesity or diabetes (or a combination of these), heart-pumping aerobic exercise can help by promoting weight loss, overall cardiovascular health and blood flow improvements that aren’t only limited to the heart. In fact, a brisk walk a few days per week over a consistent period of time can do plenty for a man’s cardiovascular, erectile and overall health. No equipment or gym membership required!

Of course, while the benefits of regular, heart-pumping exercise cannot be denied, they can be almost entirely undone by a poor diet. As you engage in a healthier physical fitness lifestyle, consider overhauling your dietary intake as well. Whenever possible, opt for whole, unprocessed (not from a box) foods and a wide range of colorful fruits and vegetables. And since these are the urological organs we’re talking about, as the filtration system for your entire body — they need plenty of water to function properly every day.

As you engage in targeted pelvic options like Kegel exercises to strengthen the muscles of your urological system, don’t forget to add in good old-fashioned, heart-pumping activities, too. Their total-body benefits don’t exclude your urological organs and may just help you totally reverse the conditions you’re facing — or better yet, prevent them from occurring later on down the road. When it comes to your urological health, don’t take it lying down. Get up and get moving.

Healthy Byte:

Originally Posted HERE

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(Reuters Health) – People who start fasting every other day may lose more weight than they would if they stuck to their usual eating habits, a small study suggests.

The 60 healthy people in the four-week study were not overweight. Researchers randomly assigned them to either stick to their usual eating habits or switch to alternate day fasting, with 12 hours of unrestricted food followed by 36 hours of no food.

With alternate-day fasting, people reduced weekly calories by 37% on average and shed an average of 3.5 kilograms (7.7 pounds). That compares with an average calorie reduction of 8.2% and an average weight loss of 0.2 kilograms (0.44 pounds) without this diet.

“We do not recommend this as a general nutrition scheme for everybody, because this is a harsh intervention of which we do not know the long-term effects,” said Frank Madeo, senior author of the study and a researcher at the University of Graz in Austria.

“We feel that it is a good regime for some months for obese people to cut weight,” Madeo said by email.

To ensure that people assigned to alternate day fasting didn’t eat on fasting days, researchers asked them to wear continuous glucose monitors. Spikes in blood glucose levels might mean people had a snack. Researchers also asked participants to fill in food diaries documenting their fasting days.

After 4 weeks of alternate day fasting, people had more lean muscle and less body fat, lower cholesterol levels and improved heart health – all things that can happen with a wide variety of exercise and nutrition programs.

To get a sense of the safety of alternate day fasting, researchers looked at a separate group of 30 people who had been eating this way for at least 6 months, comparing them to healthy people who had not been fasting.

They didn’t find any meaningful negative side effects.

One limitation of the study is that researchers didn’t test the diet in people who needed to lose weight. They also didn’t have any long-term safety data, and many health problems associated with extreme dieting like malnutrition and brittle bones can take much longer than 6 months to develop.

“The ‘starvation mode’ the body goes into during alternate day fasting may have some benefits,” said Susan Roberts, a senior scientist at the USDA Nutrition Center at Tufts University who wasn’t involved in the study.

For example, fasting can improve the body’s ability to use the hormone insulin to transform sugars into energy, a process that can help reduce blood sugar and prevent diabetes, Roberts said by email.

But there isn’t enough safety information about alternate day fasting to recommend it as a regular way of eating to maintain a healthy weight or for weight loss, Roberts said.

“My preferred option to be honest is not to recommend alternate day fasting per se but to use occasional daily fasting as a toolbox option that some people may find helpful,” Roberts said. “A small percentage of people wanting to lose weight may find it helpful, but we don’t yet know the long-term safety to recommend it with comfort.”

Healthy Byte: Nutrition Choices & Alzheimer

Originally Posted HERE

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Max Lugavere was in denial when he saw his mother, Kathy, who was just 56-years-old, slowly slipping away.

It was 2009 that he first noticed she was moving slower, becoming stiff and would lose her thought in the middle of a conversation.

“She was the kind of person anybody would describe as a sharp-witted, high performer,” Max tells PEOPLE in this week’s issue, “and it suddenly seemed like she had the brain of an 80-year-old.”

He and two younger brothers brushed it off because “she was so young” and didn’t think anything could be seriously wrong until they took a family trip to Miami.

“She couldn’t tell us what year it was, and she started to cry. It was like a record screeching to a halt, and I knew something was seriously wrong,” says Max, now 37, who immediately became her biggest advocate and went to dozens of doctors appointments with her.

Kathy was given the news in 2011 that they had dreaded from the beginning: she was diagnosed with the rare Lewy Body Dementia.

“I was watching the person who I loved more than anything in the world start to decline,” says Max, a Los Angeles-based science and health journalist. “I just became insanely motivated­ — just fixated on trying to figure out why.”

After her death in December 2018, his “entire world turned upside down,” but he continued to try to understand why and how why Kathy got dementia so young.

Max Lugavere with his mother Kathy | Courtesy Max Lugavere

Max Lugavere with his mother Kathy | Courtesy Max Lugavere

Discovering that Alzheimer’s, the most common form of dementia, often begins decades before the first symptoms show, he learned there are ways to help prevent it from ever happening.

“We can eat in a way that supplies our brain with the raw materials it requires to create healthy new brain cells, which we now know the adult brain can do up until death,” says Max, who published in March 2018 his bestselling book Genius Foods (written with Paul Grewal, M.D.). “I discovered that diet is incredibly important and so is your lifestyle.”

Foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, protein and dark leafy greens are crucial and others agree with his findings.

“He is intelligently helping us understand that there are things you can do with diet and lifestyle that slow cognitive decline,” says Dr. Ellen Vora, a holistic psychiatrist. “These diet changes certainly help with dementia, but they’re also going to help with many other things like heart disease, cancer prevention and mental health.”

He’s since launched a podcast called The Genius Life and is working on a second book with the same title coming out in 2020.

“Losing my mom was the biggest tragedy of my life,” says Lugavere, “but I’ve been compelled since day one to turn it into something that makes it a little less painful. I want to help as many people as I possibly can.”

Healthy Byte: Twelve Tips to Stop Over Eating

Originally Posted HERE

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We all have a different threshold for how much is too much, and the definition of overeating can vary depending on the situation. For instance, what you eat for dinner one day may be a normal amount for you, but it can seem like overkill if you also had a very large lunch or did a lot of snacking between meals. In general, “overeating can be defined as consuming more food than the body can handle comfortably in one sitting, or consuming more calories than the body needs to function optimally on a daily basis,” says Eudene Harry, M.D., physician and author of three books including Be Iconic. “This can leave us feeling bloated with a multitude of digestive symptoms and lead to weight gain.”

“I call overeating being “regretfull” — a combo of regret and full,” says Susan Albers, Psy.D., psychologist, best-selling author of eight books, including the forthcoming Hanger Management. “We tend to feel a lot of regret when we eat past the point of being satisfied.” There are number of physical and emotional factors that can lead us to that point. Being tired, stressed, hangry, unfocused and even eating certain foods can cause us to overeat. The trick is to resolve those issues and adopt strategies to avoid overeating on the regular. Thankfully, with the help of Dr. Harry, Albers, and Ilana Muhlstein, M.S., R.D.N., registered dietitian nutritionist and creator of the 2B Mindset, we’ve got plenty of tricks up our sleeve for you to use.

Tips on to stop overeating:

  • Clean out your cupboards. First things first: We all have those foods that we can get enough of, whether that’s chips, pasta, candy, or ice cream. “Don’t keep food around your house or office that leads to overeating,” says Muhlstein. “Out of sight, out of mind, is one of the easiest ways to control this issue.
  • Get more shuteye. Sleep improves nearly every system in our body, and when we don’t get enough, our body doesn’t function efficiently. “Studies consistently show that when a person sleeps less than the recommended 7 to 8 hours per night, she may be more likely to feel hungrier the next day and crave and consume higher calorie and carbohydrate-rich foods,” says Mulstein.
  • Stay ahead of hanger. You never want to let yourself get so hungry that you reach for whatever’s nearby. “Keep high-protein snacks handy,” says Albers. “Cheese sticks, turkey cold cuts rolled up, hummus, roasted chickpeas, nuts, energy balls and protein smoothies are some of my go-tos.” Along those same lines, Muhlstein also recommends Greek yogurts and snackable veggies like baby carrots and cut up cucumbers.
  • Check in with yourself. “When you feel yourself start to get hungry, ask yourself how hungry are you, really?” advises Albers. “Whether you’re a little bit hungry, moderately hungry, or very hungry, this is going to let you pick the right eating intervention — just a bite, a snack, or a meal.”
  • Drink water. “We commonly confuse hunger for thirst,” says Muhlstein. “To put it in perspective, we can’t live three days without water, but we can live three weeks without food.” She advises always drinking 16 ounces of water before you take your first bite of food. “It will drastically improve your ability to control your hunger,” she says. Carry a water bottle with you to make sure you’re hydrated even when you’re on-the-go.
  • Eat mindfully. “Turn off the television, put down your phone and really focus on your food,” says Dr. Harry. “Eating mindfully allows you to appreciate all the complexities and nuances of the food in front of you.” Not only will you be more aware of how much you’re consuming, she says, you’ll often notice a flavor explosion in the first few bites of your meal that gradually decreases and becomes less satisfying.
  • Include protein and fiber in your meal. These two nutrients may help you feel fuller faster, according to research. They also enable your body to better regulate swings in your glucose levels that may come with eating carbohydrates. Dr. Harry suggests working with your physician or nutritionist to assess the right amount of protein for your needs.
  • Use a smaller plate. Some studies have found we eat more when our plates are larger, while others suggest this isn’t always the case — but it can’t hurt to test it out for yourself. “Having a smaller plate that is filled to the rim can be a visual feast for the eyes,” says Dr. Harry.
  • Make your first bite a veggie. “If you’re at a party and choose the sliced veggies and dip before the cheese and crackers, you may be more likely to make smarter choices throughout the night,” says Muhlstein. It’s definitely worth a try!
  • Eat slowly. “When we slow down and chew food thoroughly, it starts the digestive process that leads to nutrients being released in the stomach,” says Dr. Harry. “This tells the stomach to make and release hormones that let the brain know it’s full so it can turn off your hunger signal. Some research estimates that this process can take 20 minutes.” For these reasons, Albers recommends cutting your bites into smaller pieces, adding an extra three chews to each bite and consciously eating at a slower pace than the people you’re with.
  • Smile between bites. No, seriously. “This brief pause gives you just a moment to ask yourself if you really want the next bite or if you should stop right there,” says Albers. “Also, a smile triggers the release of feel-good neurotransmitters, which helps reduce emotional eating.”
  • Plan an intermission. Take a break halfway through your meal to gauge your hunger level. “Even a small pause gives your food time to digest and register in your brain that you have eaten,” Albers points out. Everything you can do to help your brain accurately judge how much you’ve consumed can help you avoid overeating.

Remember, beating yourself up after we have an episode of overeating is not helpful. “Drop the inner critic and get curious about your overeating,” suggests Albers. “Ask yourself a series of questions like what lead to the overeating right now? What would I do differently next time? What are some steps that would have prevented the overeating?” This turns the situation into a teachable moment that you can use to avoid overeating in the future.

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Healthy Byte: Confidence through Fitness

Originally Posted HERE

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Have you ever felt unathletic or out of place at the gym? So has celebrity trainer Massy Arias, and she’s tired of the exclusive nature of the fitness industry. “If you have a body, you’re an athlete,” Arias tells Yahoo Lifestyle. “Fitness changed my life and shaped me as a person. I want to help women find their confidence through movement and through fitness.”

Arias strives to celebrate and promote inclusion, both in the fitness industry and as a beauty ambassador for CoverGirl. “I’m trying to change how women look at their bodies and find confidence in themselves, no matter what their body type,” Arias says. “The more awareness we bring to the space of beauty and diversity, the more pressure we’re putting on brands to actually include and start making products that really help all of us.”

For Arias, embracing fitness was a life-or-death situation. She used it to battle crippling depression that left her weak and malnourished. Now, she uses it to inspire her 2.5 million Instagram followers to turn their lives around, too.

But even though fitness saved her life, Arias knows the industry is imperfect, lacks diverse representation, and tends to leave out certain groups of people and perpetuate a harmful body ideal. So she’s working to change it.

As an individual with a large platform, she feels it is her responsibility to counter these stereotypes. Arias focuses on showing her followers that a healthy lifestyle fits for people of different shapes, sizes, cultures, and socioeconomic backgrounds. She offers fitness and nutrition tips that work — like her healthier pho recipe and equipment-free exercises.

“I think it’s important in my industry to be diverse. I’m a Latina, if my parents would have put me in to play any sport, I think I would have been an amazing athlete,” Arias says. “I will say with confidence that in the Latina community, girls do ‘girl things’ and boys do ‘boys things.’ That’s not how I’m going to raise my daughter.”

Arias also believes diversity and body inclusivity go hand in hand, and she wants people to know that curves can be healthy, too.

“You don’t need to be lean in order to have health. You don’t need to have my muscles. I lift heavy and I have a certain nutrition, and therefore I look this way,” Arias says. “But then you have someone who’s a yogi, someone who may not be muscular and is still healthy, and you have someone with more curves, and that’s still healthy, someone who’s taking care of themselves and may carry more body fat than I do.”

By working to break down stereotypes, Arias has made strides in her own self-love journey as an Afro-Latina. “For so many years, I was pressing my hair, dying it and doing all these crazy things. And I never had the courage to say, you know what, I’m just going to chop it,” says Arias. “I think I’m in a platform right now where I have so many opportunities coming my way, that when I gave birth to my daughter and I saw this little rich chocolate brown girl with curly hair, it had me question myself and my character. The one person she needs to relate to is me, and [cutting my hair] is something I did for her and for my community.”

Ultimately, Arias wants to inspire others to embrace their uniqueness with confidence and happiness. “We’re like ice cream. We come in so many flavors and so many colors — why not embrace us? There’s not a specific mold of what beauty is and who can be beautiful,” she says. “As cliché as it sounds, we need to be comfortable being us, and when we exude confidence, even if you put a ton of makeup on, your personality is gonna make you more beautiful. You can be really pretty and have all this makeup on, but that’s not what makes you beautiful.”

 

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